US Air Force designation: T-1A Jayhawk
JASDF designation: T-400
TYPE: Business jet.
PROGRAMME: Conceived as Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond; first flight 29 August 1978; two prototypes; FAR Pt 25 certification awarded 6 November 1981; production aircraft fabricated in Japan and assembled at San Angelo, Texas; deliveries totalled 63 Diamond Is (JT15D-4 engines), 27 Diamond IAs (JT15D-4D) and one Diamond II (JT15D-5).
Beech acquired rights to Diamond II from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi Aircraft International, December 1985; made improvements to aircraft and renamed it Beechjet 400. First Beech-assembled Beechjet rolled out 19 May 1986; initial 64 used Japanese components. During 1989, Beech moved entire manufacturing operation to Wichita. Announced new Beechjet 400A November 1989, featuring certification to 13,715 m (45,000 ft), larger and more comfortable cabin, all Collins avionics with digital EFIS; customer deliveries began November 1990. Transferred to Raytheon's Hawker marque in May 2003.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Beechjet 400: Initial production version (64 built); superseded by 400A.
Beechjet 400A: Announced at 1989 NBAA show; production 400A first flight 22 September 1989; FAA certification received 20 June 1990; deliveries began November 1990. Also certified by July 1993 in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and UK; Brazilian and Pakistani type approval April 1994; Civil Aviation Authority of China certification achieved in second quarter of 1999; superseded by Hawker 400XP.
Hawker 400XP: Current version (XP=eXtra Payload), announced at European Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition at Geneva 6 May 2003; first aircraft thus named was N400XP (c/n RK-356). Features 90.7 kg (200 lb increase in payload and thrust reversers, vapour-cycle airconditioning, TCAS II and electronic ELT as standard; FAA certification granted in April 2003.
Description applies to Hawker 400XP, except where indicated.
Beechjet T-1A Jayhawk: US Air Force selected McDonnel Douglas, Beech and Quintron to supply Tanker Transport System (TTTS) on 21 February 1990, including requirement for 180 Beechjet 400Ts, valued at US$755 million and designation T-1A Jayhawk; represents missionised version of 400A, sharing many components and characteristics with commercial counterpart; differences include cabin-mounted avionics, increased air conditioning capability, greater fuel capacity with single-point refuelling, and strengthened windscreen and leading-edges for low-level birdstrike protection. First production aircraft (90-0400) delivered 17 January 1992; deliveries at approximately three per month; final delivery 23 July 1997. By then total fleet time exceeeded 182,000 flying hours, with 90 per cent operational availability, and more than 680 pilots had been trained on the Jayhawk.
IOC for USAF Jayhawks January 1993, for Air Education and Training Command Specialised Undergraduate Pilot Training (SUPT) programme at Reese AFB (52nd FTS/64th FTW) where establishment of 41 received by October 1993; Reese closed in 1997. Second recipient was 99th FTS/12th FTW at Randolph AFB, Texas, where 16 delivered for instructor training in 1993; third unit was 86th FTS/47th FTW at Laughlin AFB, Texas, from late 1993 with training courses beginning May 1994; Fourth was 71st FTW at Vance AFB, Oklahoma (first aircraft December 1994); fifth was 14th FTW at Columbus AFB, Mississippi (early 1996). T-1A used for training crews for KC-10, KC-135, C-5 and C-17, with total fleet experience of more than 376,000 hours and more than 733,000 landings by October 1999.
In February 1997 Raytheon Aircraft and its subsidiary Raytheon Aerospace were awarded a contract, valued at US$6.2 million, to retrofit 62 Jayhawks with GPS; two further options to retrofit the entire fleet would bring the total value of the GPS upgrade to about US$25.3 million.
Beechjet 400T: JASDF T-400 version, featuring thrust reversers, long-range inertial navigation and direction-finding systems; interior changes. Meets TC-X trainer requirement; three, three, two and one ordered in 1992-95, plus one in 1998; first (41-5051) delivered 31 January 1994; 10th in 2000.
CUSTOMERS: The 500th Beechjet/Jayhawk (N500TH; 246th 400A) was delivered to Global Financial Group of Anderson, South Carolina, on 12 October 1999, during the NBAA Convention at Atlanta, Georgia. Total 30 delivered in 1995, 29 in 1996, 43 in both 1997 and 1998, 48 in 1999, 51 in 2000, 25 in 2001, 19 in 2002, and 17 (as 400XPs) in the first nine months of 2003. Recent customers include Hainan Airlines of China, which took delivery of one aircraft in Febuary 1999. US Air Force 180 T-1As oredered, of which delivery comleted 23 July 1997. JASDF had received 10 by December 1999 and ordered further two in 2000; operated by 41 Hikotai at Miho. By October 2002, 348 civil 400As had been registered, in addition to 64 Model 400s, 180 Jayhawks, 10 400Ts and 93 Diamonds, or 695 in all.
BEECHJET T-1A JAYHAWK PROCUREMENT
COSTS: Jayhawk programme cost US$1.3 billion; Beech contracts for 180 aircraft, US$755 million. Hawker 400XP US6.7 nillion (2003).
DESIGN FEATURES: Typical low-wing, T tail, rear-engined small business jet, with sweptback wings and empennage, plus small underfin. Compared to Diamond, Beechjet has increased payload and certified ceiling, greater cabin volume achieved by moving rear-fuselage fuel tank forward under floor (balanced by moving lavatory to rear of cabin), improved soundproofing, and emergency door moved one window forward to facilitate forward club seating.
Wing has computer-designed three-dimensional Mitsubishi MAC510 aerofoil; thickness/chord ratio 13.2 per cent ar root, 11.3 per cent at tip; dihedral 2o 30’; incidence 3o at root, -3o 30’ at tip; sweepback 20o at quarter-chord.
T-1A Jayhawk features include student pilot in left seat, instructor on right and pupil/observer behind instructor; more bird-resistant windscreen and leading-edges; fewer cabin windows; strengthened wing carry-through structure and engine attachment points to meet low-level flight stresses; rails for four passenger seats in cabin for personnel transport; avionics relocated from nose to rack in cabin to facilitate nose installation of air conditioning; emergency door moved forward to position opposite main cabin door to allow straight-through egress; improved brakes; additional fuel tank; single-point pressure refuelling; Rockwell Collins five-tube EFIS; digital autopilot; weather radar; central diagnostic and maintenance system; Tacan with air-to-air capability.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Variable incidence tailplane and elevators for pitch axis; lateral control by small ailerons and almost full semi-span, narrow chord spoilers used also as airbrakes and lift dumpers; rudder with trim tab; narrow chord Fowler-type flaps, double-slotted inboard and single-slotted outboard, occupy most of triling-edges and are hydraulically actuated; mid-span leading-edge fences on wing; small horizontal strakes on fuselage at base of fin; small ventral fin.
STRUCTURE: Wings include integrally machined metal upper and lower skins joined to two box spars forming integral fuel tank; tailplane and fin similar. Wing, fuselage and tail unit certified fail-safe unlimited life (with periodic inspections and maintenance).
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type, with single wheel and oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber on each unit. Hydraulic actuation, controlled electrically. Emergency free-fall extension. \main tyres 24x7.7 (16 ply) tubeless; nose tyre 18x4.4 (10 ply) tubeless. Nosewheel, which is steerable by rudder pedals, retracts forward; mainwheels retract inward into fuselage. Goodyear wheels and tyres; Aircraft Braking Systems brakes.
POWER PLANT: Two Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-5 turbofans, each rated at 13.19 kN (2,965 lb st) for take-off. Nordam thrust reversers standard on 400XP, but not fitted to T-1A. Total usable fuel capacity; 400XP 2,775 litres (733 US gallons; 610 Imp gallons); 400T 2,998 litres (792 US gallons, 665 Imp gallons). One refuelling point in top of each wing, and one in rear fuselage for fuselage tank, capacity 1,158 litres (306 US gallons; 225 Imp gallons). (T-1A, single-point refuelling.) Oil capacity 7.7 litres (2.0 US gallons; 1.7 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two on flight deck of 400XP on vertically and horizontally adjustable reclining seats with five-point safety harnesses; T-1A has seats for trainee pilot, co-pilot/instructor and observer. Improved interior introduced 1996, featuring redesigned trim panels, enhanced acoustic panels and vibration-damping engine mounts.
Standard ‘centre club’ layout of 400A seats eight passengers in pressurised cabin. Of these, seven are on tracking, 360o swivelling, reclining seats: four in facing pairs, two forward-facing and one aft-facing; each with integral headrest, armrest and shoulder harness. Fold-out writing table between each pair of seats. Private flushing lavatory at rear with sliding doors and optional illuminated vanity unit and hot water supply. With seat belts, this compartment can serve as eighth passenger seat.
Interior options for up to nine passengers; these include substitution of carry-on baggage compartment for one of the forward centre seats, and hot and cold service refreshment centre with integral stereo entertainment system. Independent temperature control for flight deck and cabin heating systems standard. In-flight telephone optional. Tailcone baggage compartment with external access. Optional four passenger seats in main cabin of T-1A. The 400T has an aft club arrangement with swivel chairs.
SYSTEMS: Pressurisation system, with normal differential of 0.63 bar (9.1 lb/sq in) maintaining sea level cabin environment to 7,315 m (24,000 ft) and 2,286 m (7,500 ft) cabin environment to 13,715 m (45,000 ft). Back-up pressurisation system, using engine bleed air, for use in emergency. Hydraulic system, pressure 103.5 bar (1,500 lb/sq in), for actuation of flaps, landing gear and other services. Each variable volume output engine-driven pump has a maximum flow rate of 14.76 litres (3.9 US gallons; 3.25 Imp gallons)/min, and one pump can actuate all hydraulic systems. Reservoirs, capacity 4.16 litres (1.1 US gallons; 0.9 Imp gallon), pressurised by filtered engine bleed air at 1.03 bar (15 lb/sq in). All systems are wherever possible, of modular conception: for examle, entire hydraulic installation can be removed as a single unit. Stick shaker as back-up stall warning device.
AVIONICS: Flight: GPS retrofitted to some T-1As.
Instrumentation: Standard avionics include pilot’s integrated Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 EFIS featuring three-tube (optional four-tube) colour CRT primary flight display (PFD) and multifunction display (MFD) units mounted side by side, and control/display unit. PFD displays airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, flight director, attitude and horizontal situation information, while MFD displays navigation, radar, map, checklist and fault annunciation information. Smaller, single or dual CRTs mounted on central console function as independent navigation sensor displays or back-up displays for main CRTs. EFIS installation features strapdown attitude/heading referencing system, electronic map navigation display, airspeed trend information and V-speeds on Mach airspeed display, TCAS II, ELT and solid-state Doppler turbulence detection radar.