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TYPE: Wide-bodied airliner
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: United States of America
PROGRAMME: Formerly known as 767-X, initial variant now 777-200; Boeing board authorised firm offer for sale 8 December 1989; launch order by United Airlines 15 October 1990 (see Customers); Boeing launched production programme of initial market and Increased Gross Weight 777s and formed 777 Division 29 October 1990; configuration frozen March 1991; Boeing signed final agreement with Mitsubishi, Kawasaki and Fuji, making them risk-sharing programme partners for about 20 per cent of the 777 structure, on 21 May 1991; roll-out occurred 9 April 1994.
First flight (line no. WA001/N7771 with PW4084 engines), 12 June 1994, WA00215 July, WA003 2 August, WA004 28 October, WA005 11 November; WA006/G-ZZZA (first with GE90, for British Airways) 2 February 1995, same day as FAA granted engine approval; PW-engined aircraft accumulated some 3,235 hours in 2,340 cycles in test programme, leading to joint FAA/JAA certification on 19 April 1995; FAA awarded 180-minute ETOPS approval 30 May 1995; first delivery, to United Airlines, on 15 May 1995; service entry with United on 7 June 1995 with inaugural revenue flight (by N777NA) from London to Washington, DC. Second GE90 aircraft for British Airways (WA010/G-ZZZB) joined WA006 in 1,750 hour, 1,260 cycle test programme; certification with GE engine 9 November 1995, with deliveries to BA commencing two days later.
Flight testing of Rolls-Royce Trent 800 on Boeing 747-100 testbed began late March 1995, with first flight of Trent-powered 777 (Boeing test aircraft) 26 May; certification and first delivery (to Thai International) on 3 April 1996 (formal hand-over 31 March), with ETOPS clearance following in October. The US National Aeronautic Association awarded Boeing and the 777 its 1995 Robert J. Collier Trophy for aeronautical achievement. On 2 April 1997, a Trent-powered 777 landed at Boeing Field having captured the eastbound world circumnavigation record in 41 hours 59 minutes with a single stop at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, its arrival at the latter also having secured the non-stop great circle distance record of 10,266.9 n miles (19,014.3 km; 11,814.9 miles).
Two new derivatives launched 29 February 2000 as 777-200LR and 777-300ER, both as extended-range versions of current production types. Anticipated market of 500 for these derivatives, 45 per cent of which with Asian operators.
CURRENT VERSIONS: 777-100X: Under study in 2000 to meet Singapore Airlines requirements for shortened, 250-seat version. Not proceeded with.
777-200: Initial production version. Maximum T-O weight 247,210 kg (545,000 lb); up to 440 passengers at maximum density.
777-200ER: Formerly -200-IGW (Increased Gross Weight). Maximum T-O weight initially 286,895 kg (632,5001b); increased to 293,930 kg (648,0001b) in March 1998 and 297,555 kg (656,000 lb) in January 1999; additional 53,828 litres (14,220 US gallons; 11,840 Imp gallons) of fuel in centre-section tank; same passenger capacity as basic aircraft; configuration frozen January 1994, including strengthened wing, fuselage, empennage, landing gear and engine pylons. First flew (G-VIIA, one of two for British Airways) 7 October 1996 (GE engines); FAA/JAA ETOPS certification 5 February 1997; delivery 6 February. First Trent-powered -200ER (A6-EMI, for Emirates) flew 21 November 1996. January 1999 MTOW increase resulted from fitting 777-300 main landing gear and restricting CG travel to 4 per cent, for increased taxying weight. First flight with GE90-94B engines 12 June 2000; FAA certification 14 November 2000, followed immediately by first delivery (to Air France).
First 777 for private use is a -200ER (N777AS) first flown 3 November 1998 and delivered to Raytheon Systems at Waco, Texas, for outfitting; customer delivery to Middle East Jet due late 2000.
777-200LR: Ultra-long-range version (previously 777-200X) powered by two General Electric GE90-110B engines, each rated at 489 kN (110,000 lb/st); launched 29 February 2000. Maximum T-O weight 340,200 kg (750,000 lb); fuel capacity 202,292 litres (53,440 US gallons; 44,498 Imp gallons), with addition of tanks in rear cargo hold; range 9,100 n miles (16,853 km; 10,472 miles) with 301 passengers. Raked wingtips extend total span by 3.96 m (13 ft 0 in). Firm launch order from EVA Airlines, 27 June 2000, for three. On 1 October 2001, Boeing announced suspension of development programme for up to 18 months this being resumed in March 2003; roll out due January 2005; deliveries to Pakistan International Airlines scheduled to began in January 2006.
777-250ERX: Under consideration by late 2002; length 68.6 m (225 ft); range 7,500 n miles (13,890 km; 8,630 miles) with up to 330 passengers.
777-300: Initialy known as 777 Stretch; revealed at Paris Air Show, 14 June 1995; launched by Boeing board 26 June 1995 when 36 commitments held; configuration frozen October 1995; major assembly started 7 April 1997; roll-out 8 September 1997; first flight (Rolls-Royce engines) 16 October 1997 (N5014K); first with P&W engines (HL-7534 of Korean Air) 4 February 1998; FAA certification achieved 4 May 1998 with 180-minute ETOPS approval; first delivery (B-HNH, 136th 777) to Cathay Pacific 22 May 1998.
Compared with first-generation 747s, 777-300 carries same number of passengers, but at two-thirds of fuel cost and with 40 per cent less maintenance. Features strengthened airframe, inboard wing and landing gear, ground-manoeuvring cameras on horizontal tail surfaces and wing/fuselage fairing; tailskid; Type A emergency door over each wing; and fuselage stretched by 19 frames, 10.13 m (33 ft 3 in) longer (5.33 m; 17 ft 6 in ahead of wing and 4.80 m; 15 ft 9 in aft of wing) than that of 777-200 to increase passenger capacity to 550 in single-class high-density configuration.
777-300ER: Extended range version of 777-300 (previously 777-300X); launched 29 February 2000; launch customer Japan Airlines ordered eight on 31 March 2000 for delivery from October 2003, but first recipient now ILFC/Air France in April 2004 (beginning F-GSQA). Assembly started 20 June 2002; rolled out 14 November 2002; first flight (WD501/N5017V) 24 February 2003; second prototype (WD502) flew 6 April 2003; WD501 set twin-jet MTOW record of 351,350 kg (774,600 lb) at Edwards AFB, 19 May 2003 and subsequently exhibited at Paris Air Show, 15 to 22 June 2003.
GE90-115B engines each rated at 512 kN (115,000 lb st); height 18.57 m (60 ft 11 in). Maximum T-O weight as for 777-200LR; fuel capacity 181,283 litres (47,890 US gallons; 39,877 Imp gallons) with 359 passengers. Both -200LR and -300ER have strengthened horizontal and vertical tail surfaces, strengthened wings with new tips which increase span to 64.80 m (212 ft 7 in) and strengthened landing gear, including semi-levered main gear and extendable (up to 25 cm; 93/4 in) nosewheel leg on -300ER. Modified landing gear permits steeper rotation, and thus operations from shorter runways; anti-tail strike system automatically moves elevator when runway contact is imminent.
777-300ER Stretch: Under study in 1999 as possible replacement for 747-400 with Asian carrier on routes to Europe; fuselage stretch of about 7.9 m (26 ft) to accommodate an additional 60 passengers, but airframe otherwise unchanged; range as for 777-300ER. Also referred to as 777-400X. Not proceeded with.
COSTS: Estimated development cost US$4 billion (1990). US$153.5 million to US$171 million 777-200; US$ 162 million to US$182 million 777-200ER; US$188 million to US$213.5 million 7777-200LR; US$178.5 million to US$203.5 million 777-300; US$203.5 million to US$231.5 million 777-300ER (all 2002 and unchanged by mid-2003). 777-300 estimated to burn 33 per cent less fuel and have 40 per cent lower maintenance cost than 747-100/200, resulting in direct operating cost savings of around 30 to 35 per cent.
DESIGN FEATURES: Objectives of design included replacement of McDonnell Douglas DC-10 Srs 10 and Lockheed TriStar in regional market, as well as DC-10 Srs 30 and Boeing 747SP in intercontinental service; also is replacement for early 747s. All features required for 180-minute ETOPS incorporated and tested in basic aircraft design. Cylindrical fuselage wider than 767 to allow twin aisle seating for from six- to 10-abreast; lavatories and overhead baggage bins designed to allow rapid change of layout.
Wing, of 31o 30’ sweepback at quarter-chord, incorporates new technology to allow minimum M0.83 cruise in combination with high thickness for economical structure and large internal volume, long span for improved take-off and payload/range and large area for high cruise altitude and low approach speed; no winglets. Design included provision for outer 6.48 m (21 ft 3 in) of each wing to be folded to vertical to reduce gate width requirement at airports; this option not proceeded with.
FLYING CONTROLS: Fly-by-wire. Hydraulically actuated, with trim tab in rudder. Six-segment slats in each wing leading-edge. Single-slotted flaps mid-wing, double-slotted flaps inboard; flaperon between inboard and outboard flaps. Five-segment spoilers ahead of single-slotted flaps; two-segment spoilers ahead of double-slotted flaps.
Boeing’s first airliner fly-by-wire system; fully powered control surface actuators (31 by Teijin Seiki America) electrically signalled from full FBW system; this signals slats, flaps, spoilers and control feel unit as well as inboard flaperons, outboard ailerons, elevators and rudder; system provides flight envelope protection as well as stabilisation and autopilot inputs, but the normal control columns and rudder pedals in cockpit are back-driven by the system to give the pilots direct appreciation of the activity of the automatic system.
In normal mode, flight guidance commands are generated by Rockwell Collins triple redundant digital autopilot/flight directors and the control laws and envelope protection commands are shared by the Marconi Avionics triple digital primary flight computers; each of the three primary flight computers contains three 32-bit microprocessors (a Motorola 68040, an Intel 80486 and an AMD 29050), all three programmed in Ada to perform all FBW functions; with power supply and ARINC 629 modules, each microprocessor module constitutes a lane and the three lanes constitute a channel; each lane is compared with the others in its channel; the system not only has high fault tolerance, but allows deferred maintenance, by which failures can be carried over until the next scheduled maintenance.
Commands to the powered control units are produced by three BAE Systems and Teijin Seiki actuator control electronics units, which have a fourth analogue channel directly signalled from the sticks and pedals in the cockpit; normal operating mode is for the aircraft to be flown through autopilots, primary flight computers and actuator control electronics, which simultaneously back-drive the sticks and pedals in the cockpit; first degraded (secondary) mode is used if inertial units and standby attitude sensors all become disabled and the pilots take manual control through the digital primary flight computers; second degraded (direct) mode bypasses the main FBW system with the direct analogue link between cockpit and actuator control electronics; ultimate standby is mechanical control of tailplane incidence for the pitch axis and two wing spoiler panels for lateral control. Some powered control units produced by Parker-Bertea and Moog; tailplane trim module and hydraulic brake by Raytheon Systems.
Pitch axis control law is C* U, effectively tending to make the aircraft hold an airspeed and to respond in pitch attitude to a departure from that airspeed; trim changes due to configuration changes are suppressed; the system returns the bank angle to 35° if that angle is exceeded by the pilots and the controls then released; the system prevents exceeding the limiting airspeed and stalling; asymmetric thrust is automatically countered; the variable feel system adjusts control forces to warn of approach to flight envelope limits in manual flight; the FBW system is linked to the ARTNC 629 dual triplex digital databusses (see also aircraft information management system under Avionics heading).
STRUCTURE: Composites of carbon and toughened resin used in skins of tailplane and fin torsion boxes and cabin floor beams; CFRP used for rudder, elevators, ailerons, flaps, engine nacelles and landing gear doors; hybrid composites in wingroot fairing; GFRP in fixed-wing leading-edge, tailplane and fin fore and aft panels, wing aft panels, engine pylon fairings and radome. Toughened materials have high damage resistance and allow simple low-temperature bolted repairs. Metal structure includes thick skins without need for tear straps; no bonding; single-piece fuselage frames; fuselage skin of advanced 2000-series aluminium alloy; wing, empennage and engine nacelle leading edges of 2000-series; wing top skin and stringers made in advanced 7055 aluminium alloy with greater compression strength; tailcone in standard 7000-series; 10 per cent of structure weight is composites.
Fully digital product definition with all parts created by Dassault/IBM CATTA CAD/CAM and communicated to manufacturing and publications; structure and systems integration, tube and cable run design completed before design release; 238 design/build teams have ensured that design, fabrication and test have proceeded concurrently for structure and systems. Whole aircraft defined in computer system; no mockup built.
Centre and rear fuselage barrel sections, tailcone, doors, wingroot fairing and landing gear doors made in Japan. Wing and tail leading-edges and moving wing parts, landing gear, floor beams, nose landing gear doors, wingtips, dorsal fin and nose radome made by Northrop Grumman, Raman, Alenia (Italy), Embraer (Brazil), Short Brothers (UK), Singapore Aerospace Manufacturing, HDH and ASTA (Australia), Korean Air and other subcontractors. Boeing manufactures flight deck and forward cabin, basic wing and tail structures and engine nacelles; assembles and tests completed aircraft.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type (Menasco/Messier-Bugatti joint design for main gear); two main legs carrying six-wheel bogies with steering rear axles automatically engaged by nose gear steering angle; six-wheel bogies avoid need for third leg in fuselage and simplify braking system; twin-wheel steerable nose gear; mainwheel tyres H49x19.0-22 or 50x20.0R22 (32 ply); nosewheel tyres 42xl7.0R18 (26 ply). Honeywell Carbenix 4000 mainwheel brakes arranged so that initial toe-pedal pressure used during taxying applies brakes to alternate sets of three wheels to save brake wear; full toe-pedal pressure applies all six brakes together.
POWER PLANT: Two turbofans.
777-200: 343 kN (77,000 lb st) General Electric GE90-77B, 331 kN (74,500 lb st) Pratt & Whitney PW4074 or 343 kN (77,200 lb st) PW4077, or 327 kN (73,400 lb st) Rolls-Royce Trent 875 or 338 kN (76,000 lb st) Trent 877.
777-200ER: 377 kN (84,700 lb st) GE90-85B, 400 kN (90,0001b st) GE90-90B, 417 kN (93,7001b st) GE90-94B, 376 kN (84,600 lb st) PW4084,401 kN (90.200 lb st) PW4090, 436 kN (98,0001b st) PW4098, 372 kN (83,600 lb st) Trent 884,400 kN (90,000 lb st) Trent 892 or 415 kN (93,400 lb st) Trent 895.
777-300: PW4090, PW4098 or Trent 884, 892, as above.
All fuel of baseline version contained in integral tanks in wing torsion box, with reserve tank, surge tank and fuel vent and jettison pipes all inboard of wing fold; combined capacity of main, centre and reserve tanks in 777-200 is 117,348 litres (31,000 US gallons; 25,813 Imp gallons); 777-200ER and 777-300 fuel capacity increased by centre-section tank of 53,829 litres (14,220 US gallons; 11,841 Imp gallons) to maximum of 171,176 litres (45,220 US gallons; 37,653 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Two-pilot crew; cabin cross-section, which is between that of 747 and 767, chosen to allow widest selection of twin-aisle class and seating layouts ranging from six- to 10-abreast; galleys and lavatories can be located at a selection of fixed points in front and rear cabins or freely positioned within large footprints in which they can be moved in 2.5 cm (1 in) increments and attached to prepositioned mounting, plumbing and electric fittings; overhead bins open downward and provide each passenger with 0.08 m3 (3 cu ft) volume; bins can be removed without disturbing ceiling panels, ducts or support structure; advanced cabin management system simplifies cabin management and includes digital sound system of hi-fi quality.
Typical configurations for 200/200ER include 305 passengers in three-class layout: 24 first class (two-two-two-abreast), 54 business class (two-three-two) and 227 economy class (three-three-three); 367 in two classes: 14 business (two-three-two) and 353 economy (three-three-three); 375 in two classes: 30 first class (two-two-two at 97 cm; 38 in pitch) and 345 economy (two-five-two at 79 cm; 31 in or 81 cm; 32 in pitch); 400 in two classes: 30 first class, as immediately previously and 370 economy (three-four-three, pitches as previously); and 440 passengers in single class (three-four-three).
For 777-300, options include 368 in three classes: 30 first (two-two-two at 152 cm; 60 in), 84 business (two-three-two at 97 cm; 38 in) and 254 economy (two-five-two at 79 cm; 31 in or 81 cm; 32 in); 386 in first (30), business (77) and economy (279) classes, as previously, except last-mentioned at three-four-three, with only four seats at minimum pitch; 451 passengers in two classes: 40 first, as above, and 411 economy (two-five-two, at usual pitches); 479, in first (44) and economy (435) classes, the former with 97 cm; 38 in pitch and latter three-four-three at usual pitches; and ultimate 550 single-class passengers, mostly two-four-two. Underfloor cargo compartments have mechanical handling system and can accommodate all LD formats and 88 in or 96 in width pallets; up to 32 LD-3 containers plus 17.0 m3 (600 cuft) bulk cargo can be loaded in 777-200, or 44 LD-3s and some bulk cargo in 777-300.
Flight crew rest module on flight deck, port, contains two bunks. Optional underfloor crew rest modules available with six, eight or 10 bunks, and stowage space and require only electrical connection and hatch in passenger cabin floor, level with wing trailing-edge. Roof-mounted rest modules optional for ER and LR versions, occupying unused space between rows of baggage bins; first delivery May 2003.
SYSTEMS: Honeywell air drive unit, using bleed air from engines, APU or ground supply, drives central hydraulic system; cabin air supply and pressure control by Honeywell; Hamilton Sundstrand variable-speed, constant frequency AC electrical power generating system, with two 120 kVA integrated drive generators, one APU-driven generator and Honeywell ram air turbine system. Honeywell GTCP331-500 APU; Hamilton Sundstrand air conditioning; Smiths Industries ultrasonic fuel quantity gauging system and electrical load management system; optional wingtip folding by Raytheon Montek Division and Frisby Airborne Hydraulics.
AVIONICS: Radar: Honeywell weather radar standard.
Flight: Main navigation system is Honeywell air data and inertial reference (ADIRS) containing the Hexad skewed axis arrangement of six ring laser gyros; standby system is the secondary attitude and air data reference unit (SAARU) containing interferometric fibre optic gyros (using light transmitted in two directions along fibre optic paths), which produces a secondary flight director attitude display, airspeed and altimeter; both are linked to the ARINC 629 digital databus (777 being first aircraft thus equipped); Honeywell TCAS; Honeywell/BAE Systems Canada global navigation satellite sensor with 12-channel receiver; Honeywell/Racal multichannel satcom system optional. New, smaller flight computers installed from October 2003 onwards.
Dual Honeywell aircraft information management system (AIMS) contains the processing equipment required to collect, format and distribute onboard avionic information, including the flight management system (FMS), engine thrust control, digital communications management, operation of flight deck displays and monitoring of aircraft condition; both pilots and ground engineers can assess the condition of all onboard avionics systems.
Instrumentation: Based on five-screen EFTS using Honeywell 203 mm (18 in) ARINC D-size colour liquid crystal flat panel displays (two primary flight displays, two navigation displays and EICAS display); three multipurpose control and colour display units on centre console provide interface with integrated aircraft information management system, which handles flight management, thrust control and communications control as well as all systems information.
Mission: Flight crew's 'electronic flight bag' (EFB) software installed from October 2003 (KLM Royal Dutch Airlines first) as option.
EQUIPMENT: Boeing 777-300 has Ground Maneuver Camera System with TV cameras in leading-edges of both horizontal stabilizers and underside of fuselage.